Экзаменационный (типовой) материал ОГЭ / Английский / 12 задание (24) / 54

1. What is the Art Nouveau style and how did it appear?
2. Why are there two terms used for the Art Nouveau style?
3. How was the Art Nouveau style in Russia different from other countries?
4. What was the first building in Moscow built in the Art Nouveau style?
5. Which Russian architects are known for their work in the Art Nouveau style?
6. What is the most famous Art Nouveau style building in Moscow?
7. In which areas besides architecture was the Art Nouveau style used?


A. ‘Russian Music Publishing’ was founded in Moscow by Russian musician Sergey Koussevitzky and his wife Natalia in 1909. The idea was to publish new and high-quality Russian music. To achieve that, a special Council was created, headed by Sergey Rachmaninov and comprised of other outstanding musicians. The Council gathered in the Koussevitzkys’ house in Denezhny Lane, which was the first building in Moscow constructed in the Art Nouveau style.

B. The new art style had its roots in Britain, in the floral designs of William Morris who was the founder of the Arts and Crafts movement. It was also strongly influenced by the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood – a group of painters that William Morris was close to. Art Nouveau is inspired by the natural forms of plants and flowers. It is also characterized by asymmetry and curved lines. C. It is hard to think of a person who contributed more to the development of Art Nouveau in Russia than Princess Maria Tenisheva. In her estate at Talashkino village in Smolensk Region, she organized an art center where painters, architects, sculptors and composers worked in the new style. A church and a ‘Terem’ in the Russian Art Nouveau style can still be seen at Talashkino. Princess Tenisheva was a prominent artist herself – she made enamels.

D. In 1881, a journal "L'Art Moderne" was created in Belgium. It featured articles about 'Les XX' – a group of twenty artists who wanted to bring change to art. The term 'Art Nouveau' was first used in these articles. It became better known when the ‘Maison de l'Art Nouveau’ gallery opened in Paris in 1895. This was how the new style in art that had already existed for several years got its two names. It is known as 'Art Nouveau' in some countries and 'Modern Style' in others.


E. Among the best examples of Russian Art Nouveau style in Moscow are
industrial buildings (Levinson’s printing house, architect F. Shechtel), railway stations (Yaroslavsky station, architect F. Shechtel; Kazan station, architect A. Shchusev), and religious buildings (church in Abramtsevo, architect V. Vasnetsov, cathedral of Marfo Mariinsky monastery, architect A. Shchusev).

F. In Russia, this art movement is most frequently referred to as the Modern Style. While it shared many features with its Western European counterpart, such as curved lines and plant motifs, it also had a unique national character. Russian artists drew inspiration from various sources, including folk art, domestic handicrafts, Russia’s historical past, myths and legends, as well as mysticism.

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